Adverbs of Cause and Effect
What are Adverbs of Cause and Effect?
There are two kinds of adverbs that can show “cause and effect” relationships:
- Adverbial Clauses
- Conjunctive Adverbs
An adverbial clause is a dependent clause that begins with a subordinating conjunction and modifies a verb, adjective, or another adverb in the independent clause. The following are some common examples of subordinating conjunctions that start an adverbial clause:
Let’s read example sentences of complex sentences with adverbial clauses:
|Independent clause||Subordinating conjunction||The rest of the adverbial clause|
|They were exhausted||because||they’ve been dancing for two hours.|
|James reported for duty||despite||him being sick with the flu.|
(Note: the dependent clause can be put at the beginning of the complex sentence followed by a comma.)
On the other hand, conjunctive adverbs (also, adverbial conjunctions in some books) are words or phrases that start independent clauses connected to other clauses. They come after semi-colons or periods and are followed by commas. The following are some common examples of conjunctive adverbs that start an independent clause:
- As a result
- For this reason
Let’s read example sentences with independent clauses connected by conjunctive adverbs:
|Independent clause||Conjunctive Adverb||The rest of the adverbial clause|
|Our group was in charge of the venue.||Meanwhile,||their team took charge of the sound system.|
|Carol was furious;||however,||she was able to maintain her composure.|
Adverbs of Cause and Effect Rules
|Two Independent Clauses||When separating two independent clauses, a period or semicolon is always used before the conjunctive adverb. Conjunctive adverbs cannot be connected to independent clauses without the proper punctuation to support them.|
|Punctuation||A comma is necessary when conjunctive adverbs appear at the beginning of a sentence’s second clause. It’s used after the clause. Punctuation isn’t needed for monosyllabic adverbs.|
|Conjunctive Adverb in the Middle of a Clause||This isn’t required in some cases and when the clauses are short, but if a conjunctive adverb appears in the middle of a clause, commas should enclose it.|
|Although and However||Remember not to mix the usage of these words. An error is easy to make as they have very similar meanings. But although is used for dependent clauses (adverbial clauses) and however is used as a conjunctive adverb for independent clauses.|
Examples of Adverbs of Cause and Effect
1. He wanted to attend the part; however, his mother said he couldn’t go.
2. It’s a faster solution. On the other hand, it requires more work.
3. As the rain was heavy, classes were suspended in the district.
4. Bea likes Harold a lot; in fact, I think she’s in love with him.
5. Keiran doesn’t listen to rap music because he finds it noisy and annoying.
6. Ronski kept interrupting the class so he got sent to the principal’s office.
7. We stayed a long time at the store because the brand she likes was hard to find.
8. Since you left for college, your mom and I have been thinking about selling the house.
9. Despite being friends for years, Lina never sent Osha a letter after she moved.
10. Naya has been neglecting her tasks. Consequently, the boss decided to let her go.
Adverbs of Cause and Effect Exercises with Answers
Exercise on Adverbs of Cause and Effect
Complete each sentence by choosing the best answer:
1. The wooden porch has been heavily waterlogged over the years; ____________, it will need to be renovated.
A. for example
D. even though
2. You need to produce more output; ________________ you’ll fail the performance review.
3. Spending the weekend in a mountain cabin sounds divine; ________________, a white-sand beach sounds great as well.
C. as a result
D. on the other hand
4. They planned to drive downtown; ______________________, they busted a tire so they took the bus.
A. in addition
5. Lester is really kind; __________________, his twin sister Georgina has a mean streak.
A. in contrast
1. B: The wooden porch has been heavily waterlogged over the years; eventually, it will need to be renovated.
2. A: You need to produce more output; otherwise, you’ll fail the performance review.
3. D. Spending the weekend in a mountain cabin sounds divine; on the other hand, a white-sand beach sounds great as well.
4. C. They planned to drive downtown; however, they busted a tire so they took the bus.
5. A. Lester is really kind; in contrast, his twin sister Georgina has a mean streak.
Adverbs of Cause and Effect List
|Subordinating Conjunctions for Adverbial Clauses of Cause and Effect||Conjunctive Adverbs or Adverbial Conjunctions|
in spite of
as a result
for this reason
as a consequence
because of this
Advice for ESL Students & English Language Learners
Sentences can be enriched with further clarification and explanation when descriptive words are added, allowing them to relay their message more accurately. Adjectives and adverbs are both applied for this reason, making adverbial clauses of cause and effect important when trying to illustrate the implications or meaning that sentences strive to communicate. Clauses are used to craft complex sentences, which is a somewhat more sophisticated element of English grammar. To get proficient at using adverbial clauses English language students must become aware of how to employ them suitably. You can master this by learning their use in sentence formation, remaining mindful of spelling rules, and practicing regularly.
Additionally, it is important for learners to properly understand adverbs of affirmation and adverbs of clause.
Common Errors Made by English Learners
English language students often make mistakes when dealing with adverbial phrases of cause and effect. The most normal is not knowing which kind of phrase is necessary or used. Moreover, many English language learners have difficulty locating or placing adverbial clauses in sentences appropriately. This error influences the desired message of the sentence or makes it look or sound clumsy. To prevent these slips, one must get familiar with how to make use of adverbial clauses by studying, utilizing, and correctly identifying their functions.
|Wrong Clause||Remember that there are three types of dependent clauses. Relative clauses (also, adjective clauses) modify any nouns in the independent clause of a complex sentence. Meanwhile, adverbial clauses modify the main verb of the independent clause.|
|Placement||Adverbial clauses need commas if they come before the main subject and verb or if they act as an introduction. In short, adverbial clauses at the beginning of sentences or independent clauses need commas after. If adverbial clauses are at the end of the sentences after the main subject and verb, no comma is needed.|
|Form||Subordinating conjunctions always start adverbial clauses. It signifies that the clause doesn’t have a complete idea or thought and should therefore be attached to an independent clause to comprise a complete sentence.|
Learning Strategies and Best Practices with Adverbs of Cause and Effect
The most effective ways to improve and develop mastery in using adverbial clauses of cause and effect are the following:
- Training yourself in identifying the distinction between the different types of clauses.
- Applying the correct placement of adverbial clauses in sentences.
- Studying the functions of the words that the adverbial clauses describe or modify.
|Language Lists||Lists can show language forms and sentence examples, making any grammatical concept easier to see, remember, and use.|
|Language Exposure||Reading, audio, and video materials are great resources to help broaden your vocabulary and see how native speakers use English in a variety of contexts, topics, and areas of expertise. You can also learn the difference between formal and informal English.|
|Language Exchange||Use what you’ve learned in daily conversations with fellow learners and English-speaking friends. This will eventually make you sound more confident and natural, and also use the English language with ease.|
Adverbs of Cause and Effect Frequently Asked Questions
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