Grammar helps us connect words, phrases, clauses, and sentences in a way that makes sense. Adverbial conjunctions or conjunctive adverbs are one type of conjunction that provides additional information and elaborate ideas about the action described in a sentence.
Adverbial conjunctions are a salient part of good grammar. They can make sentences flow more naturally and add nuance to your writing style. In this article, we will explore what adverbial conjunctions are and their correct usage, and common mistakes to avoid.
What is an Adverbial Conjunction?
An adverbial conjunction is a transition word or phrase that connects two independent clauses. Hence, forming a compound sentence. It provides additional information about the action described in the sentence. Adverbial conjunctions are also called conjunctive adverbs because they act like adverbs and connect two clauses. These conjunctions express cause and effect, contrast, comparison, sequence, time, emphasis, summary, and illustration.
Here are five examples of adverbial conjunctions used in sentences:
1. “I felt dizzy while exercising. Therefore, I decided to take a break.”
2. “She invited me to a party; however, I still had a lot of work to do.”
3. “He requested to be left alone after knowing the issue. Moreover, he was feeling overwhelmed.”
4. “Nevertheless, Jana managed to finish the task on time even though she was required to attend a meeting.”
5. “Sheena arranged her living room; consequently, she felt relieved and accomplished.”
Adverbial Conjunctions Rules
Using adverbial conjunctions correctly makes a big difference in your writing, allowing for smoother transitions that enable readers to follow along. But not everyone knows all the rules when it comes to using these particular words, and that’s why we’ve put together this comprehensive guide on adverbial conjunction usage. Here, we’ll cover everything from basic definitions to detailed examples and explanations of each type.
|Function||Examples||Used in Sentences|
|Cause and Effect||therefore, hence, accordingly, consequently||– The result of the diagnostic test showed that students have low reading comprehension. Therefore, the school decided to implement a new reading program.|
– The recession severely affected the company. Hence, it had to lay off some of its employees.
– The store would not refund the customer’s money. Accordingly, the customer filed a complaint with the Better Business Bureau.
– The government imposed strict regulations on the industry; consequently, many companies had to close down.
|Emphasis||indeed, certainly, moreover||– “We must, indeed, all hang together or, most assuredly, we shall all hang separately.” ~ Benjamin Franklin|
– The numbers didn’t add up. Certainly, something was wrong.
– Annual medical checkups are important. Moreover, it helps detect any health issues early.
|Contrast||however, instead, rather, in spite of||– However, Pia refused to go no matter what we said to convince her.|
– He opted to take the train instead of being stuck in traffic.
– Spending money on quality items is not a waste; rather, it is an investment.
– In spite of the rain, they decided to go for a walk.
|Summary||finally, all in all, in conclusion, briefly||– Finally, we can see the rainbow after the crisis we faced.|
– All in all, it was a great experience that I will never forget.
– In conclusion, I believe that this is the best way to approach the problem.
– Briefly, the third law of motion explains that every action has an equal opposite reaction.
|Comparison||similarly, alternatively, likewise||– Bruce enjoys kayaking; similarly, his partner enjoys sailing.|
– Ruth can go to the bank and report the fraud. Alternatively, she can call the police.
– My brother is a great singer. Likewise, my sister is a talented dancer.
|Illustrate||for instance, for example, namely||– You can prioritize mobility in cities by building bike lanes and pedestrian paths, for instance, instead of building more expressways for cars.|
– There are many ways to cook potatoes. In South Korea, for example, they are often boiled and served with various sauces.
– I can name three famous bands of all time. They are namely The Beatles, Pink Floyd, and The Rolling Stones.
|Sequence||first, next, in addition, finally||– First, set the oven to 350 degrees.|
– Next, pour the batter into the pan carefully.
– In addition, sprinkle some sugar and spices into the mix.
– Finally, bake it in the oven for 25 minutes.
|Time||lately, beforehand, now, since||– Lately, I have been more aware of the importance of adverbial conjunctions.|
– Beforehand, I was not as familiar with their usage.
– Now, I understand how they create smoother transitions in writing.
– Since then, I have used them more effectively in my work.
Usage and Proper Punctuation of Adverbial Conjunctions
An adverbial conjunction can appear at the beginning or middle of sentences. Aside from their sentence position, it’s also crucial to note how conjunctive adverbs are punctuated.
The table below shows the rules, formula, and examples of sentence position and punctuation of adverbial conjunctions.
|Function||Punctuation / Formula||Examples|
|1. Joining Independent Clauses|
Independent clauses are individual sentences that express a complete thought. A conjunctive adverb joins two independent clauses.
|First Independent Clause + Semicolon + Conjunctive Adverb + rest of the sentence||– I wanted to go to the movies; therefore, I asked my parents for money.|
– Riding a motorbike is fun; however, it can be dangerous.
– The teacher gave us a difficult assignment; nevertheless, we managed to finish it on time.
|2. Transitioning at the Beginning of a Sentence|
Conjunctive adverbs can also be used to transition between two ideas at the beginning of a sentence. This is especially useful when writing longer pieces, such as essays or reports.
|First Independent Clause + Period + Conjunctive Adverb + Comma + rest of the sentence||– Changing the structure of our organization may seem daunting and intimidating, considering the amount of work needed to be done. However, we need to make these changes to streamline our processes.|
– Switching from bottled shampoo to eco-friendly shampoo bars is one way to reduce plastic waste. Moreover, it is a more cost-effective option in the long run.
– Look at the long-term benefits of your investment. Typically, it takes a few years to see the returns.
|3. Interrupting Word or Phrase|
In contrast with the above, conjunctive adverbs as sentence interrupters are used differently as they add emphasis or provide additional information.
|Word/Phrase + Comma + Conjunctive Adverb + Comma + rest of the sentence||– Exercising, indeed, is a great way to stay healthy.|
– Ruben, in spite of his hardships, managed to finish college.
– The greenhouse effect, for example, is a major cause of climate change.
Examples of Adverbial Conjunctions
Here are ten examples of adverbial conjunctions used in sentences:
- The exam was difficult; therefore, many students failed.
- The company did not follow safety regulations; consequently, the accident happened yesterday.
- He did not listen to his parent’s advice; thus, he failed to get a discount on his loans.
- My mother is a painter. Similarly, my father is a musician.
- Bees are responsible for pollinating flowers; in addition, they produce honey.
- The weather was gloomy; however, we still went on our hike.
- The project was challenging; nevertheless, I managed to finish it on time.
- My friend is a great cook; moreover, she loves to experiment with new recipes.
- I wanted to go out for dinner; hence, I asked my parents for money.
- The store was closed; consequently, I had to buy my groceries online.
Adverbial Conjunctions Exercises with Answers
Choose the appropriate adverbial conjunction to complete the sentences below.
- You need to avoid using plastic (accordingly, next, so) you can help reduce pollution.
- (Before, Furthermore, Hence) you can also reduce your carbon footprint by using public transportation.
- (All in all, Next, However) it is important to be mindful of your actions and their environmental impact.
- The man cut the tree down; (also, likewise, thus) he was penalized for his actions.
- The boy was late for school; (however, then, certainly) the teacher still let him in.
- The girl was scared of heights; (besides, nevertheless, further) she rode the roller coaster.
- I wanted to buy a new bike; (hence, rather, now) I saved up my allowance for a few months.
- He used to stutter when speaking in public. (Now, Finally, In summary) he can talk confidently.
- The river was polluted; (for instance, then, consequently) the fish were dying.
- A couple of dresses were missing from the store; (however, certainly, incidentally) the staff was able to find them.
- You need to avoid using plastic so you can help reduce pollution.
- Furthermore, you can also reduce your carbon footprint by using public transportation.
- All in all, it is important to be mindful of your actions and their environmental impact.
- The man cut the tree down; thus, he was penalized for his actions.
- The boy was late for school; however, the teacher still let him in.
- The girl was scared of heights; nevertheless, she rode the roller coaster.
- I wanted to buy a new bike; hence, I saved up my allowance for a few months.
- He used to stutter when speaking in public. Now, he can talk confidently.
- The river was polluted; consequently, the fish were dying.
- A couple of dresses were missing from the store; incidentally, the staff was able to find them.
Adverbial Conjunctions List
|all in all||moreover|
Advice for ESL Students & English Language Learners
English grammar, like any language, is a complex subject to study. Understanding and applying grammar rules can be challenging, especially for English language learners. However, your success in learning the language is dependent on your learning plan.
First, know that there are different levels of language proficiency. Knowing your status allows you to align it with your study materials and learning strategy. To keep your motivation, select beginner-friendly materials instead of university textbooks when starting. In doing so, you will feel less intimidated by the topics you should learn.
Second, focus on the basics: nouns, verbs, adjectives, and adverbs. Learn how to use them correctly in sentences and understand their meaning. It will help you build a strong foundation for your English language learning journey. Divide those topics into subtopics and learn each concept and rule one by one.
Third, find a reliable source of learning materials. Online resources such as websites, blogs, and YouTube videos are mostly free. LillyPad’s blog, for example, is a great resource for English language learning materials. Additionally, you can find books and other printed materials in your local library or bookstore.
Fourth, practice speaking the language with native speakers or other English learners. It will help you understand how to use the language correctly in conversations and improve your pronunciation.
Finally, be patient with yourself and don’t give up. Learning a language takes time and effort, so set realistic goals and celebrate your achievements along the way.
Common Errors Made by English Learners
Learning a new language can be difficult, and English is no exception. Even experienced English learners make mistakes when speaking or writing in the language. Here are some of the most common mistakes made by English learners:
|Conjunctive Adverb Common Mistakes||Example||Correction|
|Comma splice: A comma splice occurs when two independent clauses are connected using only a comma and without a conjunction.||She will move out, she is looking for an apartment.|
The organization will feed 100 children additionally, they will send them to school.
|She will move out; hence, she is looking for an apartment.|
The organization will feed 100 children. Additionally, they will send them to school.
|Not using the correct conjunctive adverb: There are many different conjunctive adverbs, each with its own meaning and usage. Make sure to choose the correct conjunctive adverb for the context.||Vinnie kept on skipping class. However, his father scolded him.|
We wanted to hike this weekend. Now, our friend canceled the trip.
|Vinnie kept on skipping class. Therefore, his father scolded him.|
We wanted to hike this weekend. However, our friend canceled the trip.
Learning Strategies and Best Practices for Adverbial Conjunctions
A holistic approach to learning a language makes it easier to understand and remember. The five macro skills, reading, listening, viewing, speaking, and writing, should be developed and used in the learning process for better language acquisition. The table below lists activities you can do when learning linking verbs:
|Reading||– Use flashcards to know basic English sight words and their meaning.|
– Search for material that contains translations of common expressions from your native language to English.
– Select study materials appropriate for your language proficiency.
|Listening||– Listen to an audiobook or a song and write what you hear to improve your retention of English words.|
– Compare and contrast two audio materials like TV ads and a speech.
– Summarize a podcast, movie, audiobook, and other English audio materials.
|Viewing||– Observe how native speakers speak and try to mimic it.|
– Watch English movies, interviews, and tutorials.
– Use pictographs to learn and remember new words.
|Speaking||– Join a community of English language learners and communicate with them to improve and gain feedback.|
– Integrate the language into your daily life and try to speak using English.
– Participate in speech organizations (e.g. debate clubs, theatre groups)
|Writing||– Write a journal of your learning journey in English.|
– Answer practice tests and create your own sentences.
– Create a reflection essay on the media you watch or listen to.
Adverbial Conjunctions Frequently Asked Questions
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